Demonstration of Ansible Features With Control & Test VMs

I have created a small project to demonstrate some features of Ansible, the new DevOps hotness, including Vagrant VMs for running Ansible and for testing the configuration. Either go straight to

or continue reading the copy & paste here.

This project has three things of interest:
  1. A non-trivial Ansible configuration that demonstrates couple of useful features and tricks
  2. A Vagrant/VirtualBox virtual machine with Ansible & co. to make it easy to run it (even on Windows)
  3. Another VM that can be used to test the configuration
And of course all the plumbing that makes them work together. It might be therefore a good base for Ansible projects of your own.

Disclaimer: I am quite new to Ansible.

Little background: Ansible and Vagrant

Ansible is a devops tool for configuring servers over SSH, using just Python. It is similar to Puppet and Chef but does not need you to install anything on the servers (essentialy every *nix has Python 2.4+ and SSH, and it even works with the old RHEL 5.9), the configuration is by defaut pushed from the control machine instead of pulled by the servers, and it has strong focus on simplicity. It is less mature than Puppet and has fewer plugins and no support for Windows yet but the simplicity, minimal requirements, and push model are good reasons to consider it.

Vagrant is a command-line tool for creating, configuring, and managing virtual machines, f.ex. using VirtualBox. It also integrates them with the host machine by directory sharing, port forwarding, and password-less ssh. In essence, you need few text files and get a fully functional, configured, and integrated environment in a VM.

Demonstrated features & tricks

Vagrant - Ansible integration tips

Set config.ssh.forward_agent = true in the ansible-vm to make it easier to make your prive keys available to Ansible for SSH into remote machines. (See "Testing locally" below for more details.)

Add mount_options: ['dmode=0775','fmode=0664'] for mounting the directory with Ansible configuration so that the inventory file won't seem to be executable to Ansible.


General: Use roles to split configuration into separate concerns (jboss, vagrant), use variables to handle variation between environments and usages of a role (f.ex. JBoss' ports, jboss_host_type = master|slave, env = vagrant|staging|production). Use tags to mark parts of the configuration so that those parts can be picked and executed without the rest (f.ex. jboss_module, jboss_configuration, vagrant).

Secret local credentials vars file: the configuration includes variables from the file secret_vars.yml, which is added to .gitignore so that it won't be checked into Git and every user has to create her own local copy based on secret_vars.yml.example. Thus sensitive credentials never leave the local machine.

Reuse via parametrized include and simulating creates for get_url. To avoid the need to keep downloaded archives, I use stat to check for the presence of a file/directory and while to skip get_url if it exists. The whole thing is in a task include file, roles/jboss/tasks/fetch-module.yml, that is parametrized so that it can be reused to fetch and unpack three different modules - see roles/jboss/tasks/modules.yml.

Multiple environments - herevagrant and staging via two different inventory files.


If Ansible seems to freeze while executing a command, make sure that the command is not trying to ask for user input, as was my case with unzip that wanted to know what to do with existing files (fixed by running it with -o to force overwrite them).

Automated configuration of JBoss

JBoss configuration using Ansible so it is possible to automatically apply it to a server. Some of the files (-> templates) are parametrized with variables that are defined f.ex. in group_vars/appservers, the host inventory file (f.ex. vagrant), and secret_vars.yml.

BEWARE: Copy secret_vars.yml.example to secret_vars.yml and set the right credentials there.



You will need
  • (Windows: ssh, f.ex. the one from the Putty installer)
  • VirtualBox (f.ex. 4.3.6)
  • Vagrant (f.ex. 1.4.3)
  • Vagrant vbguest plugin (after having installed vagrant, run vagrant plugin install vagrant-vbguest)

How is it set up

The Vagrant/VirtualBox VM ansible-vm has Ansible installed and may be used to run it against the test VM or staging. The test VM itself, centos-vm, may be used to test the changes locally before staging. As described above, you will need to create secret_vars.yml with secret credentials.

Under Linux/Mac, you may install and use Ansible directly, without ansible-vm.

Briefly about Vagrant

Vagrant is a command-line tool that can create, set up, and manage VirtualBox virtual machines.

You need to know:
  • Run vagrant up in centos-vm or ansible-vm to create, configure, and start the VM
    • Run vagrant reload after you did up for the first time, if new Guest Additions were installed
  • Run vagrant ssh to ssh into the machine as the user vagrant, which has full sudo rights.
  • Run vagrant halt to stop a VM and vagrant destroy if you want to destroy it (to re-create it from scratch)
Notice that Vagrant automatically shares the vm directory as /vagrant with the VM (and we also share this directory as /Infrastructure) and it can forward ports from the guest VM to the host so that you can access services running in the VM via locahost:<the forwarded port> which we use a lot in the centos-vm.

Structure of the configuration

Most of the config is inside "roles" such as "jboss" and "vagrant", see the ./roles/ directory.


Testing locally

Use the test CentOS VM. To enable password-less execution of ansible against the test VM, it is recommended to use ssh-agent, adding the vagrant key to it via ssh-add ~/.vagrant.d/insecure_private_key.

Windows: Use Git Bash and enable ssh-agent as described in GitHub Help, adding the line ssh-add ~/.vagrant.d/insecure_private_key to it. Use the same Bash (?) to run vagrant up under ansible-vm.

Alternatively, run ansible with --ask-pass or -k, the password is "vagrant".
  1. Run the test centos-vm - go to the directory and run vagrant up
  2. Run ansible-vm - go to the directory and run vagrant up and then vagrant ssh
  3. In the Ansible VM run cd /Infrastructure and run f.ex. ansible-playbook -vi vagrant site.yml
Note: The ansible-vm setup assumes that IP of the host machine as visible from the VM is (test with f.ex. route)


Ansible can try to predict some of the changes it would need to do:
 ansible-playbook -vi staging site.yml -u <your user name> [--ask-sudo-pass] --check --diff

Application of changes to staging

Inside the Infrastructure/ directory, run:
ansible-playbook -vi staging site.yml -u <your user name> [--ask-pass] [--ask-sudo-pass] [--tags <comma-separated tags>] [--private-key=key file]
  • Ansible will ssh as the provided user to the machines listed in the staging file ("-u jakub" => "ssh jakub@app(1|2)")
  • --ask-pass is necessary if ssh asks for password, i.e. if you haven't set up password-less ssh
  • --ask-sudo-pass (or -K) is necessary if your user hasn't password-less sudo access on the server
  • You can use --tags to execute only a subset of the tasks (provided the have been tagged); ex.: --tags newrelic,jboss_module,jboss_configuration


Tags: DevOps

Copyright © 2024 Jakub Holý
Powered by Cryogen
Theme by KingMob